Number of Filters And Efficiency of The Vacuum

The quality of the vacuum cleaner can be expressed by its suction power, input power (or their “energy efficiency ratio” which is the suction power divided by the input power) and number of filters used.

Current vacuum producers offer systems with 4 – 8 filters. Every filter – somewhat – contributes to the purity of the air that vacuum cleaner blows to the environment after cleaning it off of dust, hair, mites and microscopic particles.

If you dismount the vacuum, you will not find the stated number of filters. That’s because the first 2 or 3 of them are hidden in the paper bag (therefore the bag should rather be called the paper filter). From the technology point of view, really, there is a huge difference between currently used 2-3 layer paper bag/filters and the single layer bags used in 1970s.

When the vacuum is switched on, the rotating turbine of the engine starts to suck the air (through the hose) in the system. The air is filtered for the first time – through the 2 or 3 layers of the paper bag.

Paper bag usually separates all larger dust particles (0,1+ mm) like soil, dead skin, hair or mites but the microscopic particles continue on their way to the system.

The 4th filter functions as a guard for the engine itself.
As the sucked air must be lead through the engine, it has to be 100% cleaned of all larger particles the prevent the engine from clogging. This filter is usually made of porous foam and can be (must be) washed in the water every now and then.

The last, 5th filter is the micro-filter (often HEPA) that catches and separates the microscopic particles (dust mite excrement, bacteria or even viruses and cigarette smoke).

The micro-filters are made of paper micro-fibers, non-woven fabrics or Gore-Tex and they can be coated with active carbon layer (active carbon has enormous surface able to capture the microscopic particles in a chemical reaction) to improve their properties.

After being filtered through the micro-filter, the air returns back to the room, purified as much as possible.

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